Who “tells” the poem
Line/sense of line
A “unit” of poetry
A group of lines (paragraph-like)
Rhythm is achieved by:
How can a poet alter the rhythm of a poem?
1. Punctuation 2. Sense of line 3. Stanza 4. Word choice 5. Sound devices
Words and phrases that represent more than they mean
Comparisons using the words “like” or “as”
Things/words that have a universal or accepted representation (black cat= bad luck)
Giving human qualities to non-human things
Paints a picture; creates sensory details
Words that are the sound they make
Repetition of the original sound (Sally sells sea shells by the seashore)
Repetition of a vowel sound
Repetition of a consonant
The last word of the line rhymes
The pattern of the end rhyme
Pause at the end of a line; when there is punctuation
When there is no punctuation at the end of the line
When the pause is in the middle of the sentence; punctuation is in the middle
Poetry without rules
How many lines does a sonnet have?
What are the two types of sonnets that we studied?
Shakespearean- English Italian- Petrarchan
Typically, a sonnet follows what type of rhythm?
Iambic pentameter which is 10 syllables per line
What is a Volta?
Marks the transition to the final section, “the turn”
The word sonnet means what?
A little song or sound
How are the two types of sonnets that we studied different from each other?
Shakespearean- ABAB CDCD EFEF GG There are 3 quatrains (four-line stanzas or sections) and then a couplet Italian- ABBA ABBA CDECDE or ABBA ABBA CDCDCD broken into an octave (first eight lines) and a sestet (final six lines)
How many lines does a villanelle contain?
How many different rhyme sounds are in a villanelle?
2 different rhyme sounds
What is the rhyme scheme of a villanelle?
Lines 1-15 follow the rhyme scheme AB The last 4 lines follow the rhyme scheme ABAA
What is a refrain?
A repeated line or word
How is the idea of a refrain important to the structure and nature of the villanelle as a form?
There are 2 refrains and two repeating rhymes, with the first and third line of the first tercet (3 lines) repeated alternately until the last stanza, which includes both repeated lines.
How many lines are in a sestina?
How many stanzas compromise a sestina?
7 stanzas (6 stanzas and a 3 line envoy)
What is an envoi or envoy?
Last 3 lines of sestina
How does the idea of a refrain work in a sestina?
Refrain in sestina- repeat 6 words
From where does the haiku originate?
How many lines and how many syllables per line does an English haiku have?
First line is 5 syllables. Second line is 7 syllables. Third line is 5 syllables.
What is the kigo?
A word or phrase that implies the season of the poem
Typically, the haiku is about what?
What are the TWO typical uses for limericks?
Dirty or child-like
What is the pattern of a limerick?
What “elements” are usually found in the FIRST line of a limerick?
A person and a place
What function is served by the FINAL line of a limerick?
Punch line if it’s a funny poem. If it’s a serious poem it’s the moral.
-used in dramatic or narrative poetry
-Shakespeare’s plays are written in blank verse
– rhythm is iambic pentameter (10 syllables a line)